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Date Conversions

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Gregorian Calendar
Everyday calendar used in most parts of our planet. It is a 16th century revision of the Julian Calendar made to return the northern Spring Equinox to 21 March and to adjust the calendar more nearly to the time between Spring Equinoxes by omitting leap days in three of every four century years.

Julian Calendar
Instituted in 46 BCE by Julius Caesar. It kept the month names from the old Roman lunar calendar and increased the 29 and 30 day months to 30 and 31, creating a year of 365 days with a leap day every four years. As is traditional, dates before 46 BCE are allowed, and the variable application of leap year between 46 BCE and 8 CE (Common Era) is ignored.

Standard Western
The Standard Western Historical Calendar, normally employed by chronologers, is a combination of the Julian and Gregorian Calendars; it represents the dates used by the states that first adopted the new calendar in 1582. Converting then from the Julian Calendar meant omitting ten days. The Common Era year numbering was not general use until the 11th century.

Britain and Ireland
Catholic Europe was the first to use the new Gregorian Calendar, but Great Britain and its colonies (including North America) did not follow until September 1752, by which time eleven days had to be missed out. Some people continued celebrating festivals and birthdays on the old Julian dates. Anachronistically assumes the use of the Julian Calendar into the far past.
Moonwise Calendar
A lunar calendar for people in western countries who normally use the solar Gregorian Calendar. The days begin in the morning, and the months end on the day of Dark Moon. It has been published since 1987, and has been revised a little over the years. This represents the calendar according to the current rules.
Jewish Calendar
Counts years from the traditional Creation date. There are 12 lunar months of 29 and 30 days, with an extra month every two or three years. The start of the year may be delayed a day or two after the Dark Moon so that Yom Kippur (10 Tishri) is not a Friday or Sunday and Hoshanah Rabbah (21 Tishri) is not a Saturday. The rules governing this are ascribed to Rabbi Hillel of 4th century CE.
Mayan Long Count
Part of the calendar of these people of Central America whose civilisation flourished during the European ‘Dark Ages’. The long count started with 13.0.0.0.0 on 6 September 3114 BCE (Julian date), and ends with 12.19.19.17.19 on 20 December 2012 (Gregorian date), after which the Universe is supposed to end and be replaced by another for the next cycle.
Mayan Calendar Round
Has three elements that run independently of each other (just as weekdays run independently of the rest of the Gregorian Calendar). First is a cycle of 13 numbered days; second is a cycle of 20 named days; these two together are known as the tzolkin. Last is the haab, a 365 day cycle of 18 months of 20 days followed by one of 5 days. The calendar round repeats every 18980 days.
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updated September 2004, Gregorian Calendar
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